In the Miao Autonomous Region of southeastern Guizhou, there is a tribe with guns, Basha. There are only 2,000 Shamiao people living in 5 villages in the vague forest sea at the foot of Moon Mountain, 6 kilometers south of Congjiang County, Guizhou Province. There are dense forests everywhere. They take rice as their main food and hunt as their companion. There are dense woods and silkworm bushes in Qinghei, which have strong concealment. For thousands of years, few outsiders have entered. Lansha village is not big. It was built at the mouth of Shanliang Depression and on the half slope facing the Duliujiang River.
The wooden buildings in the villages are simple and simple, surrounded by dense forests and elegant surroundings, and the villagers are all Miao people with unique dress traditions. Every boy in Basha must hold a rite of passage between the ages of 7 and 15. On the day of the rite of passage, the boy invited several partners of the same age to go up to the mountains to fight birds, go down to the fields to catch loach and fish in the mountain streams. The more birds fight, the more fish are caught, indicating that the greater his skill, the better he will be in the future. Then, the little friends gathered in his house, drank, burned and ate the fish and birds caught, shaved his hair by the ghost master in the house, combed into "household sticks", completed the strict ceremony passed down from his ancestors, and carried on the hunting rifle his father built for him, which marked the beginning of his life into an independent stage.
According to legend, the ancestor of Miao nationality has three sons, and the Basha people are the descendants of the third son. When Chiyou was defeated by the Yellow Emperor, he led the tribe to start the Millennium Long March to the southwest. The ancestors of the Miao people in Basha are the forerunners of the great migration, a branch of the Jiuli tribe. They are brave and brave. Basha men advocate force, usually wearing self-woven collarless right cardigan bronze button bronze cloth, straight trousers, bronze cloth, perennial waist knife, shoulder gun, mountain hunting, River fishing. Climbing trees on the hill is like walking on the flat ground. He is very good at climbing mountains and hunting. Food, clothing, shelter and transportation are taken from mountains, forests and valleys. They attach great importance to their physical strength, hunting and farming skills, but also pay special attention to clothing and body symbols.
Lusha men attach great importance to their hair bun, which is called "household stick" in Lusha Miao language. It is the most important gender symbol in men's clothing - shaving most of the hair around the head of men, leaving only the middle hair as a bun, and maintaining this style for life. It is said that this kind of costume was handed down from Chiyou's ancestors, and it is also the oldest male hairstyle ever seen in China. There were Japanese ethnologists and folklorists who came to southeastern Guizhou to seek their roots. The Basha people also aroused their strong interest. Because the costumes of Japanese warriors were almost the same as those of Basha people, some people thought that the ancestors of Japanese people were Basha people.
The hair bun on the head of the Basha people symbolizes the trees growing on the hill, and the green clothes on the body symbolizes the beautiful bark. Basha people believe that such a peaceful and comfortable life is mainly due to the precious land chosen by their ancestors, especially the shade of the forest where they were born and raised. So the Basha people worshiped trees in particular and worshipped them as gods. The Basha people said, "Man comes from nature and belongs to nature. Birth does not bring a silk, death does not take an inch of wood." They have a good tradition. When a child is born, he plants a tree and when he dies, he is buried with the tree. In the place where he is buried, another tree is planted, which symbolizes a person coming from nature and returning to nature. From ancient times to the present, Basha has never cut down trees indiscriminately, sometimes it can not be thought of, but also limited to the needs of life and production, the rest may be constrained.
Although National Highway 321 was built and passed in 1965, no car dared to come to Basha to pull a car of wood. The villagers were short of oil and salt. They just went up to the mountain to prune branches or cut some dead trees. They walked to the county town on foot to retail. They never used cars to pull them. In 1976, Chairman Mao's Memorial Hall was built in Beijing, and people of all nationalities throughout the country were eager to contribute materials. With an unlimited respect for the Chairman, the Basha people resolutely decided to dedicate a whole village in front of the village to Chairman Mao's Memorial Hall as a thousand-year camphor tree with a diameter of 1.2 meters and a great God in the forest. When Zhangshu came out of the village, all the people in the village ran to the two sides of the road and watched until the dust was clear. To commemorate the anniversary, an octagonal Memorial pavilion was built at the tree site, which is "commemorated with camphorwood in honor of Chairman Mao's Memorial Hall".
There are more than 300 families on the hill 5 kilometers west of Congjiang County (the southernmost part of Guizhou bordering Guangxi), which is a very interesting village of the Black Miao tribe. From people's clothes and hairstyles, we can really feel its tenacious national character. Basha is the last legitimate armed tribe in China. There are many children in the village, and there are some very tall shelves for drying.